Learn more about these Canadian frozen landscapes.
Canada is the second largest country in the world and is divided into ten provinces, which are British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland & Labradorand also three territories in its northern part: Northwest Territories, Nunavut and Yukon.
Known as the North Region of Canada, the territories account for 40% of Canada's land, but they represent only 3% of the Canadian population. They are located above the 60th parallel north, which forms the southern boundary of the territories with the western provinces.
The difference between a province and a territory has to do with their governance. Basically, the territories are grouped together and ruled by the government of Canada. The provinces, on the other hand, have powers, authority and many other competencies of their own.
Below you will find more information about each Canadian territory.
The Northwest Territories is the central Canadian territory,bordered by the two other territories, Nunavut to the east and Yukon to the west, and by the provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, and Saskatchewan to the south. It is the most populous of the territories with around 41,700 inhabitants, and the second largest in area with more than 1,170,000 square kilometres. The capital Yellowknife, located in the south central part of the territory, is the most populous community.
Only part of the Northwest Territories is on the continent, while the rest consist of islands in the Arctic Ocean. The Mackenzie Mountains form a rocky wall along the western edge of the Northwest Territories, and the plains east of the mountains are heavily forested. In the north and east the land is a barren and icy landscape. The Mackenzie River, the longest river in Canada, connects the two large lakes in the territory, Great Slave and Great Bear, to the Arctic Ocean.
The Northwest Territories climate is mostly cold and dry. Summers are sunny, but temperatures rarely rise above 25 °C. Winters are long and harsh, and temperatures can reach -45 °C. Yellowknife has an average temperature of 17 °C in the summer and -25 °C in the winter.
Language and Education
With half the population being Indigenous people, the Northwest Territories have 11 official languages. However, most government service and education are offered only in English and French. Most schools are very small and the only option for higher education is Aurora College.
The vast geological resources makes diamond mining the leading industry in the Territories. Mines also provide gold, silver, zinc, and lead. The production of oil and natural gas is another valuable industry. Many residents work in government and tourist services.
In addition to the immigration process offered by the federal government,) para imigrar para o Canadá. Os Territórios do Noroeste oferecem o Northwest Territories Nominee Program, which allows people to immigrate to the territory as long as they are willing to open, purchase or invest in a business, or candidates who have a job offer from an employer in the territory.
The Northwest Territories is best known for the northern lights and the midnight sun, with many tourists visiting the Territories to watch these beautiful natural phenomenons every year. Other attractions are the NahanniNational Park Reserve, the Aulavik National Park,National Park Reserve, the Wood Buffalo National Park, Bank Islands and the 60th Parallel Territorial Park.
Nunavut is the largest and the least populous territory of Canada with a total area of more than 2 million square kilometres and around 36,800 inhabitants. Created in 1999 from the eastern portion of the Northwest Territories, Nunavut encompasses the traditional lands of the Inuit, the native peoples of Arctic Canada, that represents almost 85% of its total population. The word Nunavut means “Our Land” in Inuktitut, the language of the Inuit. The capital Iqaluit is located on Baffin Island in the Canadian Arctic and it is the largest city.
Nunavut borders the Arctic Ocean on the north, the Hudson Bay on the east, Manitoba on the south and The Northwest Territories on the west. The territory includes part of the continent and also most of Canada’s Arctic islands. Nunavut has fewer than 30 communities and because there are few roads connecting communities within Nunavut, or with the southern part of Canada and no railroads, cities get supplies by airplane or boat.
Nunavut lies entirely within the Arctic climatic zone, consequently the climate is cold with snow falling even in the summer. The far northern parts of Nunavut have 24 hours of daylight during the longest days of summer and during the shortest days of winter the sun never appears in those parts. Iqaluit has an average temperature of 8 °C in the summer and -28 °C in the winter.
Language and Education
There are four official languages spoken in Nunavut: Inuktitut, Inuinnaqtun, English and French. The Department of Education in Nunavut oversees elementary and secondary schooling, and Nunavut Arctic College, in Iqaluit offers postsecondary programs and courses.
The greatest economic asset of Nunavut is its mineral wealth, which includes reserves of iron, precious metals, diamonds, petroleum and natural gas. As the federal government has begun to build more roads and schools, the construction industry has also grown. Aside from that, the government and its agencies are a major source of employment and income for the territory.
Since Nunavut is a very remote location, few immigrants choose this territory for their destination. Therefore, currently Nunavut does not have a Provincial Nominee Program. However, people interested in immigrating to Nunavut, can do so through the federal immigration programs.
People visit Nunavut to see the arctic wildlife and the Inuit way of life. Tourists can watch the narwhals, see the polar bears, the aurora borealis and the rich and unique Inuit art and music festivals. Other attractions to visit are the Quttinirpaaq National Park, Sirmilik National Park and the Nunatta Sunakkutaangit Museum in the capital.
The smallest of the three territories, Yukon is an untouched wilderness with a very small population. Located in the northwestern part of the country, it has an area of 482,440 square kilometres and around 40,200 inhabitants. The territory is famous for its gold rush of the 1890s. Whitehorse, in the southern part of the territory, is the capital of Yukon and only city.
Yukon is bounded by the Northwest Territories to the east, by British Columbia to the south, and by Alaska to the west. The territory lies within the mountainous American cordillera region and the terrain includes mountain ranges, plateaus and river valleys. The more-settled areas lie in a large central plateau surrounded by mountains. Mount Logan, in the southwest, is the highest point in Canada.
The climate in Yukon is characterised by long, cold winters and brief, warm summers. Although temperatures vary, sometimes temperatures reach summer highs of 35 °C and winter lows below −50 °C. Whitehorse has an average temperature of 14 °C in the summer and -15 °C in the winter.
Language and Education
Although English and French are officially the languages of the territory, the Yukon government also recognizes the languages of the First Nations, the indiginous people in the territory. Primary and secondary education are provided by a territorial school system, and Yukon College, with its main campus at Whitehorse and a network of community branches, provides university courses and a number of adult education programs.
Mining is the most important industry in Yukon. The territory has deposits of lead, zinc, silver, and gold. Manufacturing, including furniture, clothing, and handicrafts, follows in importance, along with hydroelectricity and tourism.
The territory offers the Yukon Nominee Program to people who already have a job offer from an employer in the territory.
Wilderness tourism represents a large part of Yukon’s attraction for tourists. Most visitors come to do kayaking, hiking, skiing, snowboarding and ice climbing. Two large national parks, Ivvavik and Vuntut, are located in the remote northwestern part of the territory. Kluane National Park and Reserve, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is the most visited.
The territory also host a number of museums and cultural festivals, including the Copperbelt Railway & Mining Museum, the Yukon Beringia Interpretive Centre in Whitehorse, the Adäka Cultural Festival, and the Yukon International Storytelling Festival
By Janayna Sercheli
If you wish to immigrate to Canada,, contact Klaps Immigration Consulting for more information on immigration processes.