In this article, we will talk about some aspects of working in Canada, as well as the different minimum wages across the country.
All workers in Canada benefit from certain rights relating to hours of work, payment of wages, vacation, holidays, and leaves. In general, the standards are very similar across the country, however, there can be some differences between the provinces and territories. The federal government specifies some working standards and rights, but employment laws and minimum wages are regulated by the provinces. The only exception is for federally-regulated industries like banks, transportation services, radio and television broadcasting, and postal services, where federal standards and wages are followed.
A working day in Canada is usually between seven to eight hours long. This means that, over a five-day work week, most employees will work around 35 to 40 hours. Workers are entitled to a 30 minutes break (paid or unpaid) for every 5 hours of work. For the purposes of benefits and deductions calculations, any working time from 30 to 40 hours per week is usually considered full time employment. Employees that work more than 40 hours in a week should be entitled to overtime pay, which can be different depending on the field and position they work.
Earnings are calculated by the working hours and payment is normally made weekly or every two weeks. While in hourly pay positions the compensation received is based on each hour and portion of hours worked, salaried positions compensations are based on the number of hours per week agreed with the employer, and the payment is based on an annual salary.
For example, if someone in an hourly pay position works for 25 hours and 30 minutes, they will be paid 25.5 hours. If the hourly rate is $10.00 per hour, they will receive $255.00 before taxes and deductions. The paycheque will depend exclusively on the number of hours worked.
Now, for salaried positions, if the annual salary is $48,000 per year for working 40 hours a week, and the company pays twice a month, the payment will be $2,000 before taxes and deductions. To calculate the payment, the annual salary of $48,000 is divided by 24 pay periods. The paycheque will be consistent throughout the year.
The minimum wage rate across Canada is usually calculated based on the average annual increase of the Consumer Price Index (CPI), which represents changes in prices experienced by consumers for the cost of living in different cities in the country. Some provinces allow lower wages to be paid to gratuity earners or to inexperienced employees.CPI), que representa as mudanças nos preços que os consumidores encontram no custo de vida em diferentes cidades do país. Algumas províncias permitem que salários mais baixos sejam pagos para trabalhadores que recebem gorjetas ou para funcionários inexperientes.
The table below shows the current (as of June 2022) minimum wage in Canada.
|Federal||$15,55||Effective on April 1, 2022. View more information..|
|Alberta||$15,00||Effective since October 1, 2018. Students under 18 receive $13.00 per hour. View more information..|
|British Columbia||$15,65||Effective on June 1, 2022. View more information..|
|Manitoba||$12,35 (lowest)||Effective since October 1, 2022. View more information..|
|New Brunswick||$13,75||Effective since October 1, 2022. View more information.|
|Newfoundland & Labrador||$13,20||Effective on April 1, 2022. View more information.|
|Northwest Territories||$15,20||Effective as of September 1, 2021. View more information.|
|Nova Scotia||$13,35||Effective as of April 1, 2022. Nova Scotia is planning to bring the wage to $15.00 by April 1, 2024. View more information..|
|Nunavut||$16,00 (highest)||Effective on April 1, 2022. View more information..|
|Ontario||$15,50||Effective on October 1, 2022. Student wage is $14.60. View more information..|
|Prince Edward Island||$13,70||Effective on April 1, 2022. View more information..|
|Quebec||$14,25||Effective as of May 1, 2022. For employees receiving gratuities and tips the wage is $11.40 per hour View more information..|
|Saskatchewan||$13,75||The minimum wage will increase to $15 by October 1, 2024. View more information..|
|Yukon||$15,70||Effective on April 1, 2022. View more information..|
Vacation pay conditions also differ between provinces and territories, but overall employees earn vacation pay at a rate of at least 4% of the time worked, which means that employees working full time will be entitled to two weeks of vacation time per year. Part-time workers are also eligible for vacation pay and will receive vacation time according to the time worked. The conditions for leaves, such as sick days, bereavement leave, and maternity or parental leave, may also vary depending on the province or territory, as well as the company where the employee works.
Overall, workers in Canada are protected by law to have their rights met. Although the majority of employers follow the rules and standards to provide a fair and safe place to work, unfortunately, that is not always the case, so it is important to understand the employment rights and labour laws in Canada.